गुरुवार, दिसंबर 16, 2010

Alcohol : benefits vs risk

Firdaus Khan
There is consensus that non drinkers should not start and the ones who drink can continue provided they do so in moderation and in absence of contraindications, said Dr. KK Aggarwal, President, Heart Care Foundation of India. People tend to consume more alcohol in winter and near the New Year.

Persons who have been lifelong abstainers cannot be easily compared with moderate or even rare drinkers. Recommending alcohol intake to them even if they would agree to drink is not justified. The diseases that moderate alcohol use prevents (such as coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and diabetes) are most prevalent in the elderly, men, and people with coronary heart disease risk factors. For these groups, moderate alcohol use is associated with a substantial mortality benefit relative to abstention or rare drinking.
For young to middle-aged adults, especially women, moderate alcohol use increases the risk of the most common causes of death (such as trauma and breast cancer). Women who drink alcohol should take supplemental folate to help decrease the risk of breast cancer. Men under the age of 45 may also experience more harm than benefit from alcohol consumption. In this age group, moderate alcohol use is unlikely to provide any mortality benefit, but consumption of less than one drink daily appears to be safe if temporally removed from operation of dangerous equipment. For individuals with established contraindications to alcohol use, even this level of alcohol use is dangerous.

Men can tolerate more alcohol than women. The ideal therapeutic dose of alcohol is around 6 grams per day. Medically safe limits are 10 grams in one hour, 20 grams in a day and 70 grams in a week.

    रविवार, दिसंबर 05, 2010

    Beware of winter drinking

    Winter is the month of high alcohol intake. Moderation is the key provided we understand what moderation is, said Dr. KK Aggarwal, President, Heart Care Foundation of India. He was interacting with the public at the Heart Care Foundation of India stall being put up at the ongoing India International Trade Fair, Pragati Maidan in the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare pavilion.

    Healthy middle-aged women can have up to one and men up to two drinks a day without increasing the risk of the abnormal heartbeat called atrial fibrillation. More than three drinks increase the risk. Atrial fibrillation is a common disease of today. It occurs in about 1 percent of people up to the age of 80 and it can cause significant symptoms in those who have it. In atrial fibrillation, the two upper chambers of the heart (atria) beat irregularly and faster than they should. Blood can pool in the atria, leading to formation of clots that can block a major artery to the brain, causing a stroke.

    Higher intakes of alcohol can cause elevation in the risk for atrial fibrillation. In a Harvard study of 35,000 women, all above 45 years, none had atrial fibrillation or any other heart condition at the start of the study. Over an average follow-up period of 12.4 years, 1.9 percent of the women who had one drink or less a day developed atrial fibrillation, compared to 1.8 percent of those having one to two drinks a day and 2.9 percent of those having two or more drinks a day. There is a 40 to 50 percent increase in the incidence of atrial fibrillation at about three drinks a day. Drinking more than six drinks in a day can precipitate sudden death. Drinking more than 5 drinks in one hour can precipitate sudden death or a heart attack.

    बुधवार, दिसंबर 01, 2010

    Avoid unnecessary injections : World AIDS DAY

    HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C can all be transmitted through blood and blood products and or by sexual route. Keeping in mind World AIDS Day KK Aggarwal, President, Heart Care Foundation of India cautioned that getting injections from unqualified health care workers can spread HIV / AIDS. The spread of HIV in India is primarily restricted to the southern and north eastern regions of the country. In India, the main factors which have contributed to its large HIV infected population are extensive labor migration, low literacy level in certain rural areas resulting in lack of awareness and gender disparity. According to Dr. KK Aggarwal, President, Heart Care Foundation of India :

    In order to pass HIV from one person to another, HIV-infected internal fluid from one person needs to get into the bloodstream of another person. HIV is usually transmitted through: Sharing needles, unprotected anal, vaginal, and sometimes oral sex, and from mother to infant before or during delivery and while breast-feeding.

    HIV can spread through unprotected sexual contact with multiple partners, blood products, mother to baby (before or during, or through breast milk) and sexual intercourse (vaginal and anal). In the genitals and the rectum, HIV may infect the mucous membranes directly or enter through cuts and sores caused during intercourse (many of which would be unnoticed). Vaginal and anal intercourse is a high-risk practice.

    The mouth is an inhospitable environment for HIV (in semen, vaginal fluid or blood), meaning the risk of HIV transmission through the throat, gums, and oral membranes is lower than through vaginal or anal membranes. There are however, documented cases where HIV was transmitted orally, so it cannot be stated that getting HIV-infected semen, vaginal fluid or blood in the mouth is without risk. However, oral sex is considered a low risk practice.

    An injection needle can pass blood directly from one person's bloodstream to another. It is a very efficient way to transmit a blood-borne virus. Sharing needles is considered a high-risk practice.

    It is possible for an HIV-infected mother to pass the virus directly before or during birth, or through breast milk. Breast milk contains HIV, and while small amounts of breast milk do not pose significant threat of infection to adults, it is a viable means of transmission to infants.

    Effective strategy to prevent HIV
    Becoming educated about HIV and understanding the facts about transmission are the first, and perhaps most important way to prevent the spread of HIV.

    Abstaining from sex particularly with multiple sexual partners and needle sharing is the most effective way for people to protect themselves from HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. However, when abstinence is not an option for people, using barrier protection such as latex condoms (male or female) is the next best thing.

    Three stages of prevention
    Firstly, everyone should take steps to avoid contracting the infection,
    Secondly, an infected person who does not know that he is infected should be made aware of his condition through symptoms or thorough examination and
    Finally, the already infected persons should be made aware of the need for prevention of other diseases and be aware that he can infect others.

    The most effective ways to prevent HIV Infection
    Not having sex – whether vaginal, anal, or oral
    • Sex only between two mutually monogamous, uninfected partners who do not share needles or syringes with anyone.
    • Not injecting non prescribed drugs
    • Not sharing needles or syringes for any reason (when injected illegal drugs, medications, vitamins, or steroid; tattooing; or body piercing)
    • Not engaging in activities that involve exchange of blood, semen, vaginal fluids, or breast milk.

    Ways to reduce the risk of HIV Infection
    Using a latex condom the right way every time during vaginal, anal, or oral sex.
    • Not using drugs or alcohol, which can impair judgment.
    • Cleaning needles and syringes with chlorine bleach and water if more effective prevention is not available.
    • Using barrier protection (e.g. latex gloves) when coming into contact with blood.

    A new weapon of war, HIV kanya, HIV blood transfusions after kidnapping, HIV positive syringes for extraction of money.

    On Saturday, April 4, 09, 52 year old Johnson Aziga was found guilty of murder by a Montreal jury for not sharing his HIV status with sexual partners, two of whom later died from AIDS-related illnesses. According to prosecutors, this marks the first case in Canada, and possibly the world, where an HIV-positive individual has been convicted of murder for failing to inform partners of his status.

    Aziga, a former government research analyst from Uganda, was found guilty. He infected seven women; four other partners did not contract the virus. The Crown argued that Aziga infected the women with “‘slow-acting poison’ that destroyed their immune systems … leading to their cancers and to their deaths.” The sex was not considered consensual because the women were not aware he was HIV positive.

    Needle stick injury
    The average risk of seroconversion after a needle stick injury is about 3 per 1000 with no prophylaxis. It is estimated that this risk is reduced at least 80 percent when post exposure prophylaxis (started within 3 hours) is administered in a timely fashion. Infection is high with hollow needle, high bore needle and if the needle is inserted in the artery or the vein.

    Prior to the widespread use of hepatitis B vaccine among health care workers, the prevalence of hepatitis B virus markers was higher among health care workers than the general public. In 1991 the guidelines came that all health care workers be offered hepatitis B vaccine. Recent studies suggest that this strategy has been highly successful in reducing hepatitis B virus infection among health care workers with a 95 percent decline in the incidence of hepatitis B infection among them.

    Hepatitis B virus is the most infectious of the three blood borne viruses. It gets transmitted by percutaneous and mucosal exposures and human bites. It has also been transmitted by fomites such as finger stick devices used to obtain blood for glucose measurements, multi dose medication vials, jet gun injectors, and endoscopes. The virus can survive on counter tops for seven days and remain capable of causing infection.

    The prevalence of HCV infection among health care worker is similar to that of the general population. Testing of health care workers for hepatitis C virus HCV should be performed after needle sticks, sharp injuries, mucosal, or non intact exposure to hepatitis C virus positive blood. The average incidence of sero conversion to hepatitis C virus after unintentional needle sticks or sharps exposures from a hepatitis C virus positive source is 1.8 percent (range, 0-7 percent). Transmission of hepatitis C virus from blood splashes to the conjunctiva has been described. Hepatitis C virus has been demonstrated to survive on environmental surfaces for at least 16 hours but not four or seven days.
    Infected blood with hepatitis C, hepatitis B and HIV together is the most deadly weapon ever possible.

    शनिवार, अक्तूबर 30, 2010

    Beware of candles

    Firdaus Khan
    Paraffin wax candles, used for light, fragrance and to create a romantic ambiance, can contribute to air pollution inside home. The candles, which are made from petroleum, are a source of known human carcinogens and indoor pollution, said Dr KK Aggarwal, President, Heart Care Foundation of India.

    With Diwali approaching, one should be careful of candle pollution. Dr Aggarwal said that people visiting the Perfect Health Mela will also be educated about the harmful effects of candles. Candles made from beeswax or soy, although more expensive, apparently are safer because they do not release potentially harmful pollutants.

    An occasional paraffin candle and its emissions does not harm but lighting many paraffin candles every day for years or lighting them frequently in an unventilated bathroom around a tub, may cause problems. Ventilation can help reduce the level of pollutants in closed rooms. Pollutants from burning candles can also cause respiratory irritation and allergy.

    बुधवार, सितंबर 29, 2010

    Panic and Rumors are contagious

    Firdaus Khan
    Both rumors and panic reactions are contagious. It just takes one percent of the population to create rumors. Most rumors are not facts. The best way to know whether it's a rumor or not, is to ask, "Who told you". The answer invariably will be ‘someone’. Unless somebody has heard it from the horses' mouth do not believe it. It is a human tendency to add to what one has heard from someone.

    This was stated by Dr K K Aggarwal, President Heart Care Foundation of India. Rumors are scientific and are based on the 100th Monkey Phenomenon. Once the target population is sensitized, the rumor spreads like wild fire. In a gathering of 1000 people only 10 persons are required to spread the rumor, and the resultant panic. In a war-like situation, it is easy to spread rumors as the public is sensitized for the same and living in an unknown fear.

    Panic attacks are an unexplained and unprovoked fight or flight response. The body suddenly has the physical reaction of a life-threatening situation. Panic attack is usually mistaken (by the sufferer) as a heart attack and can be very frightening. Anxiety can sometimes lead to panic attacks therefore a lot of people with anxiety disorder tend to unfortunately develop panic attacks.

    Talking about anxiety, Dr. Aggarwal said that it is a feeling everyone suffers from at one time or other. It is an emotion most people experience when they feel they are in danger. The heart rate increases, the muscles tense up, one get a rush of adrenaline and one is ready to fight for the life. This is called the "Fight or Flight" reaction and it gives one the extra strength needed to overcome or escape a dangerous situation.

    On the other hand, anxiety disorder is when you have the symptoms but the reason for feeling the "Fight or Flight" reaction is unclear.

    A panic attack is a sudden surge of overwhelming fear that comes without warning and without any obvious reason. It is far more intense than the feeling of being 'stressed out' that most people experience. Symptoms of a panic attack include:
    • Racing heartbeat
    • Difficulty in breathing, feeling as though you 'can't get enough air'
    • Terror that is almost paralyzing
    • Trembling, sweating, shaking
    • Choking, chest pains
    • Hot flashes or sudden chills
    • Tingling in fingers or toes ('pins and needles').
    • Fear that you're going to go crazy or are about to die

    In addition to the above symptoms, a panic attack is marked by the following conditions:
    • It occurs suddenly, without any proportion to the actual situation; often, in fact, it's completely unrelated.
    • It passes off in a few minutes; the body cannot sustain the 'fight or flight' response for longer than that. However, repeated attacks can continue to recur for hours.

    A panic attack is not dangerous, but it can be terrifying, largely because it feels 'crazy' and 'out of control'. Panic disorder is frightening because of the panic attacks associated with it, and also because if often leads to other complications such as phobias, depression, substance abuse, medical complications, even suicide. Its effects can range from mild word or social impairment to a total inability to face the outside world.

    शनिवार, सितंबर 11, 2010

    Amazing info about Indian Rural Talent

    Clay artifacts.

    Mansukhbhai Prajapati with APJ Abdul Kalam.
    Former President APJ Abdul Kalam called him a 'true scientist'. Mitticool, a clay refrigerator that works without electricity had turned the world's attention to its creator Mansukhbhai Prajapati, a craftsman based in Gujarat ..
    Presenting the national award to Mansukhbhai in 2009, President Pratibha Patil appreciated his work and asked him for a Mitticool.
    Scientists and journalists from across the world have visited his unit to see how he makes eco-friendly products at a low cost.
    A school drop-out, he has achieved a feat that many in the world envy today. The simple and unassuming Mansukhbhai is not keen on money. His ambition is to make more low-cost and eco-friendly products for the masses.
    "A good majority of Indians cannot buy a fridge as it is expensive. Besides this, electricity bills and maintenance cost is also high. Mitticool is an eco-friendly product which has no maintenance costs. It also retains the original taste of vegetables, says Mansukhbhai who has sold 1500 units so far.
    "I failed in the tenth standard. But I was not disappointed as I knew that I was capable of making something new," says Mansukhbhai who holds a patent for Mitticool.
    People who considered him as incapable, now look up to him. They say, "you are the pride of our community!"
    He has been popularising earthen products since 1988. The only drawback for him is the lack of stores to sell them.
    The products are mostly available in Gujarat and in some stores in Mumbai and Pune only. Besides, the low-cost fridge, he has developed a water filter, non-stick tava and a pressure cooker all made of clay. And he has many more innovative ideas.

    Mansukhbhai' s father at work.
    The beginning
    Pottery has been the Prajapati family's traditional business. Mansukhbhai' s family belonged to Morbi in Rajkot district.
    However, his father gave up the profession as it was not getting them any money. It was all hard work without much gain. He being the only son was sent to school on the hope that he would do well in academics and get a good life..
    However, he disappointed them when he failed tenth standard. To make matters worse, he refused to take up construction work which his father had started doing. He was however forced to do all sorts of odd jobs. He even injured an eye working in a brick factory..
    "I was fed up. I wanted to start my own factory. But there was no way I could do it without resources. I joined a tile factory. I worked there for sometime. This was a turning point for me," he says.
    He found that tiles were manufactured at a fast pace with a machine which was quite expensive.

    Mansukhbhai receives the National Award from President Pratibha Patil.
    However, Mansukhbhai knew he needed to think differently and make innovative products. He took a loan of Rs 30,000 and started a small factory.
    At the age of 18, he made a machine, which could make 600 tavas a day instead of 100 tavas they used to make manually. This gave him lot of confidence to explore and innovate.
    He got the idea to make a machine for about Rs 4,000, which could help him manufacture more tavas than was being done manually. His initiative to restart the pottery business was not taken positively. But he went ahead despite opposition.
    "Now all my family members actively take part in the work. They are very happy with what I have achieved so far.. I owe a lot to my family. I am happy that my elder son is doing an engineering course in ceramic
    engineering. "
    Water filter.
    His only regret is that because of poor marketing his products are not reaching out to many people. He, however, makes it a point to parcel products to people who are willing to deposit money in his bank account.

    The business
    It was a great beginning. "I also made a clay mixing machine. Till then, clay used to be missed with the legs.. This machine also reduced the workload and improved the efficiency."
    By 1995, he realised the need to build a water filter. The market had steel filters which were not very efficient. After months of research and hard work, he built a water filter.
    Luck favoured him too. "A person who had settled in Nairobi heard about my project and approached me for 500 units. I was excited. I sold it making Rs 100,000 on the first sale. It was a good start. The product I developed was sold in Nairobi even before it sold in India ," he says. The water filters priced at Rs 350 to 400 are quite popular.
    Non-stick pan.
    Later in 2005, he started the non-stick tava (pan) business. "My wife could not buy a non-stick tava as it was costly. So I thought many people would be facing the same problem..
    That's when I designed the non-stick tavas, priced between Rs 50-100." It took him an year to research and experiment -- testing the material for the non stick coating etc. The food grade test for the pan was done by Tata Chemicals in Mumbai.
    Mansukhbhai has sold more than 50,000 tavas. He had to make thousands of tavas before he made the perfect one.
    He thanks the Gujarat Grassroots Innovation Network and professors at Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad and the National Innovation Foundation, who extended their help in the form of grant and guidance for getting the patent, making the packing box and lab testing of products.
    Mitticool fridge.
    "When a foreign delegation came to meet me, we cooked food in clay vessels and served them in clay plates. They were very impressed and happy with our healthy approach."
    In 2009, he made the clay pressure cooker. "It comes with a whistle too," he remarks. About 500 cookers have been sold so far.

    The idea behind Mitticool
    During the 2001 earthquake, all earthen pots were broken. Some people told me the poor people's refrigerators are broken. They referred to the 'matkas'(pots) as refrigerators.
    It struck me then that I must try to make a fridge for those who cannot afford to buy a fridge. The patent winning Mitticool has been the most challenging product for him. It needed a lot of experimenting. He started work on it in 2001, the product was finally ready by 2004.
    It took him almost four years of hard labour and an investment of about Rs 10 lakh (Rs 1 million). An engineer who saw the fridge asked him to make 100 units. This was a great morale booster...
    He had to take a loan of about Rs 10 lakh (Rs 1 million) for the Mitticool project. He is still repaying the debt.
    Mansukhbhai with his products.
    It takes 10 people to make a fridge in one day. Made from clay, the refrigerator can store water, fruits, vegetables for 8 days and milk for one day.
    The upper part of the refrigerator stores water, while the bottom unit has space for fruits, vegetables and milk.
    At present, he sells the clay fridges at Rs 2,500, at his unit. Most of the sales outside Gujarat are done during exhibitions.
    In Mumbai and Pune, some of his products are available. Every year he takes part at the international trade fair in New Delhi in a bid to popularise the products.
    The popular clay pressure cooker.
    "I have also been getting lot of calls from the US .. It is amazing to see so much interest from abroad," he says happily.
    Mitticool was showcased at a conference organised by the Centre for India and Global Business, Judge Business School , University of Cambridge , UK in May 2009. Bosch and Siemens Hausger te (BSH), Germany , has also showed interest in Mitticool.
    About 20 units of Mitticool have been exported to the UK , Africa and Nairobi .. He has now been invited to Africa to set up a unit there. "I have not committed anything but the most important thing is the soil. Gujarat has the best soil for pottery," he points out.
    Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi checks the products.
    The recognition
    Mansukhbhai had never imagined that his products would win him so many accolades.
    Nothing can be as rewarding as such compliments. Money is nothing compared to people's appreciation. "Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi knows me by my name. He has been very supportive and told me to approach him for any problem," he says.

    He says well-known activist and performer Mallika Sarabhai recently remarked that he should be made Gujarat 's brand ambassador.
    Mansukhbhai to be on Discovery Channel
    He also enjoyed doing a shooting for a programme which will be aired on Discovery Channel.
    "A team from the Discovery Channel took me around India .. I enjoyed the trip. It was a wonderful experience. I had never imagined that I would ever be able to fly in a plane," Mansukhbhai says.
    The media has been very supportive. It feels great to see my products on television channels, newspapers etc.
    His goal
    Mansukhbhai wants every Indian to have access to his products. There is very little awareness about the products though I try to participate in 2-3 exhibitions every year.
    "I wish I could strike a deal with a retail store like Big Bazaar to get better visibility. I am sure if more people use our products, it will create more awareness about such low-cost products that are a healthy and cost effective alternative in the long run."
    Advice to entrepreneurs
    His advice to budding entrepreneurs is: Never think about failures. Never give up.
    Put your heart and soul into what you want to do. Always follow the right path and have patience. Keep working hard.

    रविवार, अगस्त 15, 2010

    India's First Independence Day Celebrations In Delhi

    मंगलवार, मई 18, 2010

    From Darkness to Light

    O loss of sight, of thee I most complain!….
    Blind among enemies, O worse than chains, dungeon or beggary, or decrepit age! Light, the prime work of God, to me is extinct, and all her various objects of delight annulled, which might in part my grief have eased. Inferior to the vilest now become of man or worm; the vilest here excel me, they creep, yet see; I, dark in light, exposed to daily fraud...
    -John Milton

    Milton was expressing a primal sentiment as ability to see is critical for realization of human potential. This sentiment is shared by at least 12 million people in India who fall in the category of blind (visual acuity less than 6/60). In many cases this fate is totally avoidable or can be corrected by simple interventions. For example, in the year 2008-09, the country performed nearly 5.8 million cataract surgeries with 94% inter-ocular lens (IOL) implantation. In layman terms this means blindness was either prevented or corrected in 5.4 million people in one year. This was one of the activities of National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB) which has made a commendable progress in terms of Cataract Surgical Rate and the momentum thus generated would continue in future also.

    National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB) is now more than thirty years old, launched in 1976 as 100% centrally sponsored scheme has the professed goal of reducing blindness prevalence to 0.3% by the year 2020. Blindness prevalence stood at 1% in 2006-07, down from 1.1% in the year 2001-02. Refractive errors are other important cause of vision impairment and are being addressed effectively through institutional and outreach activities. School Eye Screening is an important strategy wherein eyes of children studying in schools are screened for vision impairment and glasses distributed free of cost to students from poor socio-economic strata. Corneal blindness is being addressed through eye banking activities and a new thrust has been given for eye donation and corneal transplantation.

    With the approval of Rs 1250 crores and implementation of Eleventh Plan (2007-12) the programme has taken a lead in addressing other issues of blindness in a comprehensive manner. These include Diabetic Retinopathy, Glaucoma, Childhood blindness, Low Vision and ocular injuries in a mission mode through successful Public Private Partnership. The endeavor of the programme is to eliminate all causes of avoidable blindness and to reach a sustainable level where-in all people have access to level appropriate eye care service. Tele-ophthalmology a new information technology tool has been introduced under the programme for reaching the undeserved population in rural & tribal areas. The results are very encouraging and being scaled up in a phase manner.

    The programme has been fully integrated under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) to enhance the reach and coverage including utilization of services of community link worker like Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) and Anganwadi workers. State Blindness Control Societies and District Blindness Control Societies have been merged State Health Societies and District State Societies formed under the NRHM umbrella. Under NRHM facility for IOL implantation are to expanded to at least Taluka level.

    Other new initiatives include funding for construction of eye wards and dedicate eye OT especially in North East State and Hilly/underdeveloped States and appointment of eye surgeons, eye donation counselors and Para-Medical Ophthalmic Assistant (PMOA) especially for the new or district where there are none. The recurring expenditure of such workforce will be borne by Government of India till the term of eleventh plan period and thereafter it would be taken up by respective State/UTs. Funding for provision of latest equipment and instruments for establishing & strengthening eye care services in government institutions i.e. vision centre at Primary Health Centre (PHC), Community Health Centre (CHC) through district hospital and medical colleges are being developed into centre of excellence for providing pediatric ophthalmology retina units/low vision units.

    Non-governmental sector providing free services to needy population are being supported through recurring and non-recurring grant as per the approved schemes. Capacity building of health personnel is another important strategy for improving their skills and updating them on issues relevant to the programme for delivery of eye care services. The Government coordinates the in-service training of eye surgeons working in public sector and provides funding to States/UTs for other health care staff including medical officers, paramedical and community link workers. Advocacy and social mobilization including Information, Education and Communication (IEC) activities have made a impetus in improving community awareness.

    Funds utilization is an indicator for planned activities being under taken and during last five years utilization has been to the tune of nearly 100% of the allocation. National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB), through State/UTs and all other stakeholders and partners are consistently moving forward in advancement of comprehensive eye care services and hopefully would be able to bring the level of blindness in the country from current status of 1.0% to 0.3% by the year 2020.

    बुधवार, मई 05, 2010

    Valmiki Tiger Reserve

    Valmiki Tiger reserve, the 18th Tiger Reserve of the country and second in Bihar is located in the northern-most part of the West Champaran district of Bihar. The Extensive forest area of Valmikinagar was owned by the Bettiah Raj and Ramanagar Raj until early 1950s. Core area was declared as a National park in 1989. Government of Bihar had notified 464.60 sq. km. Area as Valmiki Wildlife Sanctuary in 1978. Later on, in 1990 an area of 419.18 sq. km. was added to the Sanctuary. Thus Valmiki Wildlife Sanctrary embraces a total area of 880. 78 sq.km.

    The Valmiki tract is broken and undulating often showing highly fragile geological formations. As a result, there are steep ravines, knife-edge ridges and precipitous walls formed by land slips and soil erosion.

    The great Gandak and the Masan revers collect all the water from the numerous, tributaries. These rivers and streams keep changing course from side to side. Facilitated by the erosion prone sandy and immature soil of the banks,seasonal rivers like Panchanad, Manor, Bhapsa and Kapan display peculiar behaviour of erosion at one place and deposition of transported soil at another place.

    The Hill system is the Continuation of Shiwalik Range, largely made of imperfectly compacted and ill-formed sandstone dotted with pebbles and boulders. Owing to the fragile nature of parent rock material, the soil produced at the foothill is immature, loose sand and display sheet. The menace is further aggravated by maltreatment of the forests by people in general, frequent fires and heavy grazing.As per 1997 census, there are 53 tigers and 54 leopards in the reserve.

    Valmiki Tiger Reserve is home to several Species of flora such as Sal (Shorea robusta), Asan, Karama, Semal, Khair, Cane(Calamus tenuis), Jamun, Siccharrum , Mahulan, Piper, and Lagun (Peepar).

    Major forest types existing in the sanctuary are Bhabar Dun Sal Forest, Dry Shiwalik Sal forests, West Gangetic Moist Mixed Deciduous Forest, Eastern Wet Alluvial Grassland, Barringtonia Swamp Forest, Khair – Sisso Forest , Cane brakes etc

    There is a plethora of animals at Valmiki Tiger Reserve. Apart from the Tiger, the faunal spacies include the Leopard, Fishing Cat, Leopard Cat, Spotted Deer, Chital, Sambar, Hog Deer, Black Buck, Gaur , wolf, hyenas, Indian civets, Jungle cats, wild dogs, Sloth Bear, languor, Rhesus Macaque, etc. You will also come across birds like the peafowl and reptiles like the python at the sanctuary.

    Due to construction of Baghva-Chitauni Rail-cum-Road Link Bridge, natural flow of Rohua and Kotaraihya streams were blocked and 1691 ha. Forest land has been inundated that lead to 15000 trees dying in Madanpur block in the buffer of the Reserve. Mining operation in the area also damage the reserve.

    There are few archaeological important places in this area.At Lauriya Nandan Garh is a lion pillar of Ashoka, which is a single block of polished sand stone, 32’-9.5” in height with a diameter of 35.5” at base and 26.2” at the top. The pillar is over 2000 year old and in excellent condition.

    Nandgarh is a huge mound composed of bricks and is about 80 feet height. According to an authoritative source, it is an Ahsok Stupa in which ashes of Buddha’s funeral pyre were enshrined.

    Bawan Garhi, the remains of 52 forts and Tripan bazaar are at Darubari. Somehwar Fort is situated in Narkatiagani sub-division, near Nepal border, on top of the Someshwar hill at 2884 ft. It is believed that three rivers, Gandak, Sonha and Pachanad, merge here soon after they emerge from the hills. Triveni is also believed to be the site at which the fight commenced between Lords of Forest and Water (the Elephant and Crocodile).

    मंगलवार, मई 04, 2010

    Bandipur Tiger Reserve

    Bandipur Tiger Reserve, situated in Mysore District of Karnataka State, was among the first nine Tiger Reserves created in India at the launch of Project Tiger in 1973. The Bandipur National park is one of the most fascinating wild-life centres established in 1930’s by the Mysore Maharajas. It was their private hunting park. Late in 1941, it was expanded to adjoin the Rajiv Gandhi National Park- Nagarhole in the north-west, Kerala’s Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary in the south-west and Tamil Nadu’s Mudumalai wildlife Sanctuary in the South which now together constitute the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve- the first ‘Biosphere Reserve’ of India.. This park has boasted a constant rise in Tiger population since then. It is also famous for Sandalwood trees and rare species of Flora. The highest peak is Gopalaswamy hill. The temperature in Bandipur ranges between 10 degrees and 35 degrees Celsius. The park has an average rain fall of 1200 mm.

    The main perennial rivers of the Reserve are Nugu, Kabini and Moyar. The Nugu river flows in the middle of the reserve, whereas, the Moyar river forms the southern boundary between this reserve and Madumalai Wildlife Sanctuary. The Kabini River, across which a major irrigation dam has come up at Beechanahalli, forms the boundary between this Reserve and Nagarhole.

    The Kabini reservoir provides water facility and the grazing ground on the foreshore, for hundreds of elephants during severe and prolonged pinch period. Seasonal streams like Wadli, Chammanahalla, Aidasanahattihalla, Hebballa, Warranchi, Chippanahalla and Mavinahalla are also present. There are a few natural and artificial saltlicks available in the Reserve and are being regularly used by the wild animals.

    Bandipur Tiger reserve was formed by including most of the forest area of the then Venugopala Wildlife Park and its sanctum sanctorum at Bandipur, in the year 1973 and named Bandipur National Park. A Sanctuary of 90 sq. km. Area was created in Bandipur Reserve Forest in 1931. Venugopala Wildlife park was constituted in 1941 extending over 800 sq. km. The park was named after the deity, Venugopala of the shrine atop this hill.All the forests included in the Reserve are reserved forests notified prior to independence.

    This reserve is covered with a mix of evergreen forests, variety of animal species and rivers. It mainly consists of medium sized hills with gentle slopes and shallow, heavily forested valleys with a remarkable variety of flora and fauna.The forest cover is very dense with vegetation like Teak, Honne, Tadasalu, Mathi, Nandi, Rosewood, Sandalwood, Bamboo, Nelli, Kooli, Kadu Tega, Dindalu, Bende, Randia and Flame of the Forest making up a major portion of the variety. Forest types are Dry deciduous scrub, Southern tropical/Dry deciduous and Southern Tropical Moist Mixed deciduous forests.

    There are several species of valuable timber trees including: Teak - Tectona grandis, Rosewood- Dalbergia latifolia, Indian Kino Tree- Pterocarpus marsupium, Sandlewood (Santalum album), Pterocarpus marsupium, Grewia tiliaefolia, Amblica officianalis, Indian- laurel Terminalia tomentosa, Schleichera trijuga, Odina woliar, Butea monosperma, Cassia fistula, Dendrcalamus strictus, clumping bamboo- Bambusa arundinacea, Chloroxylon swetenia, Acacia catechu, Shorea talura , Randia uliginosa.

    There are also several notable flowering and fruiting trees and shrubs including: Kadam tree Adina cordifolia, Indian gooseberry Emblica officinalis, Crape-myrtle Lagerstroemia lanceolata, axlewood Anogeissus latifolia, Black Myrobalan Terminalia chebula, Schleichera trijuga, Odina wodiar, Flame of the Forest Butea monosperma, Golden Shower Tree Cassia fistula, satinwood Chloroxylon swetenia, Black Cutch Acacia catechu, Shorea talura (E), indigoberry Randia uliginosa Major Fauna

    There is large population of Elephants in BNP. Significant numbers of Predator species of Mammals live in BNP. Main Species include Tiger, Leopard, Elephant, Gaur, Sambar, Hyena, spotted deer, Sloth bear, Mouse deer, Wild dog, four horned Antelope chevrotian, Dhole. Among them Tiger, Four horned Antelope, Gaur, Elephant, panther, sloth bear, crocodiles, Mouse deer, python, osprey, pea fowl are Endangered Species. Reptiles

    King Cobra, Common Cobra, Python, Python Adder, Viper, Rat Snake, Water Snake, marsh Crocodile, Lizard, Chameleon, Monitor Lizard, Frog, Tree frog, Toad and Tortoise Brids

    Grey Junglefowl, Pompadour Green Pigeon, Honey Buzzard, Red-headed Valuture, Grey-headed Fish Eafle, Brown Hawk Owl, Bay Owl, Malabar Trogon, Nilgiri Flycatcher, Malabar Pied Hornbill, Little Spiderhunter, Peacock, Plain Flowerpecker and Woolly-necked Stork can be seen at this reserve. It has reach population of butterflies.85 different types of Butterflies and 67 types of ants are found here.

    शुक्रवार, फ़रवरी 26, 2010

    Qasida Burdah Shreef

    Written By: Allamah Imam Busairi (R.A.)

    Sallallahu alaihi wasallam
    Sallallahu alayhi wasallam
    Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam
    Sallallahu aleyhi vesellem.

    Mawlaya Salli Wassalim da-Iman Abadan
    Ala Habi Bika Khairil Khalqi Kullimi
    O my Lord send peace and blessings upon your Beloved (PBUH)
    The best of all creations.

    Sallallahu aleyhi vesellem
    Sallallahu aleyhi vesellem
    Sallallahu alayhi wasallam
    Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam

    Da-aa illallahi fal-mustamsikuna bihi
    Mustamsykuna bihablin ghairi munfasam.
    He called (people) towards Allah, so those who cling to him.
    Clinging to a rope which will never snap.

    Sallallahu aleyhi vesellem
    Sallallahu aleyhi vesellem
    Sallallahu alayhi wasallam
    Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam.

    Muhammadun Sayyidul Kawnayni Wa-Thaqalain
    Wal-Fareeqaini Min Urbin Wa Min-Ajami.
    Muhammad ( Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) is the leader of both worlds and both creations (man and jinn).
    And of both groups, Arabs and non Arabs.

    Sallallahu aleyhi vesellem
    Sallallahu aleyhi vesellem
    Sallallahu alayhi wasallam
    Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam.

    Thummar Rida An Abi Bakriw Wa An Umarin
    Wa An Aliyyiw Wa An Usmana Zil Karami
    (Then) be pleased with Abu-bakr and Omar (Radiyallahu Anhuma).
    And Ali and Uthman (Radiyallahu Anhuma), the people of nobility.

    Sallallahu aleyhi vesellem
    Sallallahu aleyhi vesellem
    Sallallahu alayhi wasallam
    Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam.

    Ya Rabbe Bil Mustafa Ballig Maqasedna
    Wag Fir Lana Ma Madaya Wase Al Karami
    O my creator, O Allah. Fulfill our aims in life Allah
    Forgive our sins, Ya Allah. O Allah the most gracious.

    Sallallahu aleyhi vesellem
    Sallallahu aleyhi vesellem
    Sallallahu alayhi wasallam
    Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam.

    Mawlaya Salli Wassalim da-Iman Abadan
    Ala Habi Bika Khairil Khalqi Kullimi
    O my Lord send peace and blessings upon your Beloved (PBUH)
    The best of all creations.